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How Does A Hydraulic Breaker Work?

How Does A Hydraulic Breaker Work?


The working principle of hydraulic breakers for excavators in the daily operation, there are often working conditions such as breaking and dismantling. At this time, the best "golden partner" of excavators-the gun head can be sent great use. What exactly is a gun head? Why is it so destructive? What is the gun head? The gun head, also called hydraulic hammer, stone crusher, and crusher, is one of the accessory parts often used by excavators. It is often used in working conditions such as mountain opening, road crushing, house demolition, bridge demolition, and mine crushing.


Structure of the commonly used hydraulic breaker


The structure of the hydraulic breaker is mainly divided into three parts: the upper cylinder block (nitrogen chamber), the middle cylinder block (oil cylinder), and the lower cylinder block. The three are connected by four through-body bolts. The upper cylinder is used to store low-pressure nitrogen. The middle cylinder contains pistons, accumulators, oil seals, gas exchange valves, etc., and the lower cylinder contains steel drills, flat pins, horizontal pins, inner and outer bushings, etc.


The main structure of the hydraulic breaker is divided into the hammer body (movement core) and the bracket. The upper and lower splints protect the movement respectively, while the drill rod is directly in contact with the material during the crushing operation. The accumulator mainly plays the role of buffer protection, which can extend the service life of the crusher to a certain extent. Generally, small breaker hammers or breaker hammers with drill rods less than 10cm in diameter are not equipped with accumulators.


hydraulic breaker working principle


Hydraulic inlet kinetic energy plus upper accumulator kinetic energy pushes the cylinder rod upward to compress the nitrogen chamber. After pushing to the highest point, the reversing valve switches the direction, hydraulic inlet kinetic energy plus nitrogen compression kinetic energy pushes the cylinder rod down quickly Hit the drill rod to complete the crushing work.


The correct way to use hydraulic breaker


1. The drill rod is perpendicular to the striking surface, and the drill rod is compacted (oblique drilling will easily cause the drill rod to break and damage the cylinder, and the cylinder will be damaged if the drill rod is not compressed.


2. The engine should be warmed up for ten minutes before the crushing operation, especially in winter, which will help the operation to be smooth; visually check the oil pipes for oil leakage before crushing. The oil leakage should be dealt with in time and check whether the hydraulic breaker oil seal is leaking. Replace the oil seal in time for oil leakage, otherwise dust will enter the piston and wear the piston.


3. Do not use the hydraulic breaker to push heavy objects or large rocks, which may cause the breaker bracket to break.


4. Do not use the drill rod to pry or shake, which will easily cause the drill rod to break.


5. Do not hit the same place continuously for more than 1 minute, otherwise it will easily cause excessive wear of the drill rod. You should change the position to hit. Larger and harder stones should be broken at the edge, because the edge is easier to break.


6. Insufficient blow operation during crushing. Do not drop the hydraulic breaker on the hard rock. The breaker and machine structural parts will be damaged due to excessive vibration; improper engine speed will cause insufficient blow force and damage the piston engine valve.


7. Do not carry out crushing operations in water or muddy ground. Moisture can easily penetrate into the piston and cause the piston to rust. Dirt and dust may accumulate in the drill rod chamber to accelerate the loss of the hydraulic hammer.


8. Do not perform striking operations when the bucket, forearm, and boom cylinders of the machine are fully extended or fully retracted. It is easy to cause the cylinder rod to break due to the shock vibration and return to the cylinder body.


9. Do not lift heavy objects with a hammer or drill rod, which will easily cause damage to the machine or drill rod, and at the same time easily cause the danger of heavy objects falling off.


10. When the hydraulic breaker is not used for a long time, the drill rod should be completely pushed into the breaker to push the piston cylinder rod into the piston to prevent the cylinder rod from being exposed to rust and damage in the air.


11. Accessories to be replaced regularly:


The drill rod and excessive wear need to be replaced in time, and the drill rod pin should also be replaced at the same time, otherwise the drill rod is too loose and will accelerate the loss of the drill rod;


Oil seals and oil seals are leaking or need to be replaced in time for 6 months, otherwise the system will enter foreign matter and cause piston wear and excavator hydraulic system pollution damage;


Through bolts, nuts, shell bolts, hydraulic pipes, and bushings should be inspected regularly. Any loss found to need to be replaced in time, otherwise it is easy to cause major failures;


When hydraulic oil return filter element and common breaker work, the oil return filter element needs to be replaced after 250 hours;


When working with hydraulic oil and common breaking hammers, the entire vehicle hydraulic oil needs to be replaced for 600-1000 hours, otherwise the hydraulic system of the machine is easily damaged due to contamination of the hydraulic system.


Other detailed working principle of hydraulic breaker for excavator


1. Accelerating phase of return stroke: When the return stroke of the piston begins, the last impact of the piston has ended and it is in an instantaneous pause state. At this time, the main valve V2 cavity is a low pressure cavity, and V4 cavity is a normal high pressure cavity, so the main valve core is in the lower limit position. In this way, the piston front chamber V1 communicates with high-pressure oil through the main valve core, and the piston rear chamber V3 is always in communication with the oil return chamber, which is low pressure. Therefore, the piston accelerates the return stroke under the action of the front chamber high-pressure oil while compressing the tail nitrogen Nitrogen in the chamber makes it adiabatic compression.


2. Return braking movement: The piston continues to move upward under the action of high pressure oil. When the lower side of the middle section of the piston passes under the control port, the high pressure oil in the V1 cavity enters the V2 cavity of the main valve Because the hydraulic pressure acting on the main valve core through the V2 cavity is greater than the hydraulic pressure acting on the main valve core through the V4 cavity, the valve core is forced to start reversing movement. The movement of the spool gradually reduces the high-pressure oil entering the V1 cavity, so that the corresponding return thrust acting on the piston is gradually reduced, while the return resistance imposed by the compressed nitrogen is getting greater and greater, and the piston turns into the return stroke. Braking phase. The spool will finally completely cut off the pressure oil in the V1 cavity, and the piston will quickly stop the return movement.


3. Stroke acceleration movement: When the piston stops the return movement, it will immediately enter the stroke movement stage. At this time, the main valve core has opened the oil passage from the piston front chamber V1 to the main valve core return chamber, so that the oil in the piston front chamber can be discharged smoothly. At this time, the piston starts a rapid stroke motion under the adiabatic expansion force of nitrogen. When the piston strokes, the valve core will reliably stay at the upper limit position.


4. Special state: The piston strikes the pause state. Under the action of the adiabatic expansion of nitrogen in the nitrogen chamber, the piston makes a quasi-equivalent acceleration movement (its acceleration gradually decreases). When the upper side of the middle section of the piston crosses the upper edge of the control port, the V2 cavity of the main spool communicates with the oil return, and the V2 cavity becomes a low pressure cavity. The spool will begin to reverse downward under the action of the high pressure oil in the V4 cavity. At this time, the piston that has obtained enough energy hits the drill rod to complete the impact action. While the spool continues to move downwards, when the spool moves to the lower limit position, the piston is in an instantaneous pause phase. At this point, the piston ends a working cycle. Subsequently, the piston rebounds after impact and starts the next working cycle.


The above is a brief introduction of hydraulic breaker working principle today, I hope it will help you. Last, if you are searching for the reliable hydraulic breaker manufacturers, you can choose HMB Hydraulic Attachments factory, who have more than 10-year production experience in excavator attachments. Our products include hydraulic hammer, hydraulic pile hammer, hydraulic pulverizer, hydraulic shear, Scrap shear, hydraulic grapple, selector grab, orange peel grapple, quick coupler, excavator earth drill, hydraulic compactor, Pedestal booms, digging bucket and excavator bump which can meet almost all the needs from customers.


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